December 22, 2020 | Uncategorized
Composition of human skin microbiome can be modulated Date: July 8, 2019 Source: Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona Summary: Scientists have demonstrated the use of … 40, 873–876. Microbes Infect. There are present different types of bacteria on our skin surface. J. Drug Discov. J. Clin. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.04.066, Goodman, A. L., Kallstrom, G., Faith, J. J., Reyes, A., Moore, A., Dantas, G., et al. of the skin microbiome are only partly under- stood, but results suggest that host genetic and envi- ronmental inﬂuences play a major role. Recent advances in unlocking a key understanding of the cellular mechanisms through which the microbiota implement both the establishment and restoration of cutaneous homeostasis highlight three indispensable essential interactions (Figure 4): (i) antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) or other metabolites produced by reintroduction of a single of microbiota directly inhibit or kill pathogenic microorganisms (Nakatsuji et al., 2017, 2018; Williams et al., 2019); (ii) reintroduction of living microbiota induces keratinocytes and sebocytes to produce AMPs to shape microbial communities (Nagy et al., 2005, 2006; Naik et al., 2015); and (iii) reintroduction of a cocktail of microbiota has a synergistic effect on ameliorating the ecology of skin microbial communities (Paetzold et al., 2019). Considering that most amplicon sequencing approaches are insufficient to recapitulate skin microbiome community composition at the species level, especially members of the Staphylococcus genus (Meisel et al., 2016), and that the important functional differences existing among strains within a species are not being resolved (Bosi et al., 2016) due to modest gene gain or loss events or even differences in gene expression among strains (Chen et al., 2018), the ability of species- and strain-level analysis of the skin microbiome population structures is crucial for defining the role of commensals and explaining the pathogenesis of skin diseases. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. (2016). There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of C. acnes between acne patients and normal individuals. Dermatol. doi: 10.1038/nature25177, Chien, A. L., Tsai, J., Leung, S., Mongodin, E. F., Nelson, A. M., Kang, S., et al. (2016). Current understanding of the cutaneous microbiota is based on sampling the outermost layers of the epidermis, while the microbiota in the remaining skin layers has not yet been fully characterized. Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. (2019). Research techniques made simple: bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing in cutaneous research. J. Dermatol. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00149-X, Williams, H. C., Dellavalle, R. P., and Garner, S. (2012). Nat. 375, 2335–2348. The severity of AV clinical symptoms depends on the number of non-inflammatory lesions (closed and open comedones), inflammatory lesions (pustules and papules), and the residual pathology of nodules and cysts (Shalita, 2004; Ghodsi et al., 2009). (2009). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the bacteria present on the surface of the skin are carried out on samples with the SW Kit. Figure 2. Atopic dermatitis. Comparing the population structure of C. acnes strains in pilosebaceous units from 48 acne patients and 51 normal individuals using a combination of metagenomics and genome sequencing, metagenomic data analysis demonstrated that the strain-level distribution of C. acnes was different enough to distinguish acne skin from healthy skin (Figure 3; Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013). J. Microbial guardians of skin health. Dialogue between skin microbiota and immunity. These observations mirror AD treatment effects of other skin bacteria present in healthy and AD individuals but lack known cellular and molecular mechanisms. Then, he has founded a company with the aim of bringing this product to market in the next 2–3 years. Akin to the therapeutic principle appearing in the gut, manipulating microbiota to modulate dysbiosis has been successful in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the control of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (Allegretti et al., 2019) and more recently in leveraging probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum to prevent neonatal sepsis (Panigrahi et al., 2017). Shifts in human skin and nares microbiota of healthy children and adults. Microbiome Analysis of the Human Skin Microbiota. Long believed to represent mainly a source of infection, the human skin microbiota is nowadays well accepted as an important driver of human (skin) health and well-being. Mol. Examples of resident microbes include the following: 1. (2012). Allergy Clin. J. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00388-8, Tomich, M., Planet, P. J., and Figurski, D. H. (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.035, Drago, L., De Grandi, R., Altomare, G., Pigatto, P., Rossi, O., and Toscano, M. (2016). Primers 4:1. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0001-z, Weidinger, S., and Novak, N. (2016). U.S.A. 108, 6252–6257. Persistence of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. J. Syst. 9, 244–253. Rev. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.01.016, Melnik, B. Dis. PLoS Genet 11:e1005614. Human skin is colonized by a complex microbial community, considered for a long time as dominated by Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci, micrococci, corynebacteria, Propionibacterium spp., Brevibacterium spp., and members of the genus Acinetobacter being the most frequently encountered Gram-negative bacteria in human skin microbiota. 2020 Feb 26;11:291. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00291. Topographically, the human skin can be divided into many regions and each region represents its own micro-environment (Grice and Segre, 2011). 9:eaal4651. Bacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital. Understanding reintroduction of living microbiota at the strain level may be critically important for correcting dysbiosis. Microbiome 5:76. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0294-2, Weidinger, S., Beck, L. A., Bieber, T., Kabashima, K., and Irvine, A. D. (2018). doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp033487, Janek, D., Zipperer, A., Kulik, A., Krismer, B., and Peschel, A. Trait composition of the human skin microbiome. (2019). Front. The examples discussed herein illustrate that determining the fate of the healthy or disease states of skin may need to be updated to include the skin microbiota constituents. Epidemiologic similarities in pediatric community-associated methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in the san francisco bay area. (2018). Recently, Moestrup et al. Dermatol. Normal Microbiota of the Skin. doi: 10.1038/nature12171, Fitz-Gibbon, S., Tomida, S., Chiu, B. H., Nguyen, L., Du, C., Liu, M., et al. As investigators usually focus only on the most critical microbe that causes disease, dysbiosis on the surface of skin is thought to be the loss and increase in a single commensal microbe rather than a mix of different skin microbiota. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors a … Nature 514, 59–64. The recently launched Human Microbiome Project aims to characterize the human microbiota and its role in health and disease ().The study reported here contributes to the broad goals of this project and may have implications for the future treatment of skin disorders. NLM doi: 10.1038/sj.jid.5700431, Chaptini, C., Quinn, S., and Marshman, G. (2016). 9:eaah4680. The skin microflora are microorganisms that are resident on our skin. mSystems 4:e00293–19. Transl. The human skin is a complex ecosystem that hosts a heterogeneous flora. (2006). AV (also commonly called acne) is one of the most ubiquitary non-communicable inflammatory dermatoses of the pilosebaceous unit (Williams et al., 2012; Lichtenberger et al., 2017), characterized by both specific localization on skin regions of abundant sebaceous glands (such as the face, neck, and back) and manifestations within a narrow age range in association with adolescence followed by frequent resolution (Szegedi et al., 2019). Moreover, not all strains of one species have antimicrobial activity, and the ability of inhibiting microbiota between active strains are different (Williams et al., 2019). J. Eur. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.10.023, Sun, Z., Huang, S., Zhu, P., Yue, F., Zhao, H., Yang, M., et al. The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the millions of different organisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi – that live on Human Skin. Am. A. However, RT4 and RT5 were significantly enriched in up to 40% of AV individuals but rarely found in normal individuals. Clin. *Correspondence: Wei Liu, email@example.com; Zhi Liu, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. There are 1,000 different bacterial species and up to 80 different fungi species. Corynebacterium 6. Allergy Clin. 57, 122–127. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4502, Nakatsuji, T., Chen, T. H., Narala, S., Chun, K. A., Two, A. M., Yun, T., et al. (2016). Amplicon sequencing is the most commonly used for characterizing skin microbiota communities by the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene for bacteria (Jo et al., 2016) or the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal gene for fungi (Schoch et al., 2012). Med. For example, the appearance of AD has been tightly associated with dysbiosis in the skin microbiota (Kobayashi et al., 2015). Furthermore, Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most prominent of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species (Sohn, 2018), which is generally beneficial to the host, appears unexpectedly in AD flares and predominates in less severe flares (Byrd et al., 2017), implying that a disease could arise from dysbiosis of the microbial community without an invading pathogen prevailing in the community. (2019). 47, 1449–1456. Findley et al. Encyclopedia Cell Biol. Interspecies interactions influence the composition of microbial communities, but their mechanisms are poorly understood. The skin represents the exterior interface between the human body with the environment while providing a home to trillions of the commensal microorganisms—collectively referred to as the skin microbiota. Epub 2014 May 23. Characterization of microbiome and human host from three cohorts of microbiome-associated conditions, using multiple 'omics technologies. In terms of the overall diversity of the skin microbiota, AD is significantly lower in adults than in children. Dermatol. This is also basically the first time that a microbial transplantation on human skin has been useful for treatment (Sohn, 2018). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Compared to traditional antibiotic therapy of directly eradicating pathogens by brute force, the advantage of this methodology is not only to reduce the formation of drug-resistant bacteria but also to avoid destroying the indigenous microbiota of patients. doi: 10.1002/jcla.23363. Microbiol. Topographic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in human skin. (2008). Immunity 42, 756–766. Human gut microbiomes are known to change with age, yet the relative value of human microbiomes across the body as predictors of age, and prediction robustness across populations is unknown. J. With an increasing appreciation in the contribution of microbes to skin diseases, ecology-based therapy of microbial transplantation that exploits the preferred niche of skin microbiota has also been developed for the treatment and study of diseases. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.07.058, Dorrestein, P. C., Gallo, R. L., and Knight, R. (2016). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60321-8, Williams, M. R., Costa, S. K., Zaramela, L. S., Khalil, S., Todd, D. A., Winter, H. L., et al. Infect. (2016). Invest. Skin manifestations of primary immune deficiency. (2015). Association between Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and disease phenotype in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus. Microbial biofilms are a well-characterized mode of surface-associated growth, which present community-like behaviors. (2002). These microbes that coexist in an established balance play a pivotal role in the protection of cutaneous health and the orchestration of skin homeostasis. Br. Paetzold et al. (2018). The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to the host. PLoS ONE 7:e34171. Am. Temporal stability of the human skin microbiome. Due to the high prevalence and ability to affect physical and psychological health for human (Williams et al., 2012; Weidinger and Novak, 2016), certain common cutaneous diseases related to skin microbiota remain a frontier for research. doi: 10.1111/jdv.14385, Lomholt, H. B., and Kilian, M. (2010). U.S.A. 109, 6241–6246. Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.12.037, Zipperer, A., Konnerth, M. C., Laux, C., Berscheid, A., Janek, D., Weidenmaier, C., et al. The human skin hosts a diverse community of commensal bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, which collectively constitute the skin microbiota. For example, these cues can be directly stimulated by S. epidermidis TLR2 signaling or induced by activation of S. epidermidis-specific IL-17+CD8+ T cells that confer protection against skin infection by inducing keratinocytes to secrete cathelicidin and kill distinct pathogens (Figure 4; Naik et al., 2015). The microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis. J. Med. The principal intention was to provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models in microbiota analyses. Demodex folliculorum is found in hair follicles in clusters with other mites of the same species. Our company has developed ready-to-use non-invasive collection kits to analyze the lipids and biomarkers of the skin surface from your samples or from those of your clinical center. 132, 933–939. This indicates that the decrease in surface lipids may restrict Malassezia's ecological competitiveness. Recently, Paharik et al. Dysbiosis in AD flares is characterized by a decline in bacterial diversity and the dramatic augment in relative abundance of Staphylococcaceae. Association of systemic antibiotic treatment of acne with skin microbiota characteristics. When certain indigenous skin commensals are rich in recipient skin, reintroduction of a cocktail of microbiota has a higher engraftment. J Clin Gastroenterol. Mol. Trends Microbiol. Human skin is the largest epithelial surface for interaction with microbes. Figure 1. Adv. Genome Res. Dermatol. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.6171.1109, Darabi, K., Hostetler, S. G., Bechtel, M. A., and Zirwas, M. (2009). The skin is home to a wide variety of normal microbiota, consisting of commensal organisms that derive nutrition from skin cells and secretions such as sweat and sebum. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001367, Seebacher, C., Bouchara, J. P., and Mignon, B. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.008, Oh, J., Conlan, S., Polley, E. C., Segre, J. Enter HMP1. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) as a significant etiological factor of laryngological infections: a review. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4680, Neuman, H., and Koren, O. In mouse and cell culture models of AD, R. mucosa isolated from healthy individuals improved the prognosis, but those collected from AD patients worsened the prognosis, whose interventions of targeting the microbiome could provide therapeutic benefit for AD patients (Myles et al., 2018). In a more recent study, Williams et al. J. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.006, Margolis, J. S., Abuabara, K., Bilker, W., Hoffstad, O., and Margolis, D. J. Application of a single of microbiota such as S. hominis secretes microbiota-produced antimicrobial peptides (MP-AMPs) or other metabolites [such as autoinducing peptides (AIPs)] to inhibit pathogen S. aureus. Received: 07 June 2020; Accepted: 18 September 2020; Published: 22 October 2020. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Sci. In contrast to the interspecies dysbiosis of skin microbiota in AD, the distortion of AV is caused by the shifts of intraspecies population structures of skin bacterium C. acnes (Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013). Allergy Clin. Roseomonas mucosa is one particular commensal found on the skin of healthy and AD individuals (Paller et al., 2019). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). J. Dermatol. Infect. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities. Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization. (2019). doi: 10.1126/science.1260144, Bieber, T., D'Erme, A. M., Akdis, C. A., Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Lauener, R., Schappi, G., et al. Genome Med. (2018). Sci. In the May issue of Experimental Dermatology 2018, we published a review article focusing on human 3D skin models in the context of microbiota research. characterized fungi on healthy human skin using sequencing of the ITS region and showed the greatest diversity of fungi was found on the feet, with intermediate levels of diversity on the hand and forearm . 8, 2195–2205. (2018). Notably, patients with C. acnes subtype H1 and Leifsonia being more abundant showed a markedly higher transplantation by using a multistrain donor solution, suggesting that different microbiota might have a synergistic effect (Figure 4; Paetzold et al., 2019). Streptolysin S and necrotising infections produced by group G streptococcus. Invest. Notably, dendritic cells (DCs) extend their dendrites into the stratum corneum to acquire microbial antigens and active T cells to release cytokines. Cell Host Microbe 22, 746–756.e745. Proc. 137, 1213–1214. Epub 2020 May 17. These are generally Gram-positive bacteria such as Clostridium, but sometime… A recent comprehensive review proposes a new concept that AV may be a naturally developing, transient inflammatory interplay of adolescent facial skin with its new microbiota (C. acnes), replacing a state of previous skin homeostasis in childhood (Szegedi et al., 2019). doi: 10.1038/nature14052, Nakatsuji, T., Chen, T. H., Butcher, A. M., Trzoss, L. L., Nam, S. J., Shirakawa, K. T., et al. Here, we focus on members of the healthy human skin microbiota, which we consider as those taxa that stably reside (intransient) on the normal skin in the majority of humans. Microbiol., 22 October 2020 (2016). Proc. Allergy 68, 498–506. Am. J. Dermatol. The normal microbiota of skin tends to inhibit transient-microbe colonization by producing antimicrobial substances and outcompeting other microbes that land on the surface of the skin. The skin microbiota is indispensable for host skin health, as dermatological conditions have been linked to the alteration of the cutaneous microbiota [ … 74, 945–973.e933. Genet. Bacteria are the most abundant at all sites, followed by fungi, with the fewest viruses. However, the distributions of distinct C. acnes strain populations in acne and normal skin are dramatically different. (2019) applied the CoNS strains collected from human subjects to identify the molecular mechanism for the effects of S. aureus on the epidermal barrier disruption in the development of AD and further determine how dysbiosis on the skin surface permits the bacteria to induce inflammation. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2017.11.034, Lichtenberger, R., Simpson, M. A., Smith, C., Barker, J., and Navarini, A. Allergy Clin. (2018). For instance, although the taxa of bacteria that colonize the skin of normal individuals is generally similar, the skin microbiota of individuals with primary immunodeficiency displays more ecological permissiveness with altered population structures (Oh et al., 2013; Lehman, 2014). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Claesen et al. In addition to CoNS, the potential role of another Gram-negative skin bacteria in AD is also investigated. Dermatol. Phenotype and antimicrobial activity of Th17 cells induced by propionibacterium acnes strains associated with healthy and acne skin. Agak, G. W., Kao, S., Ouyang, K., Qin, M., Moon, D., Butt, A., et al. Sebaceous sites such as the face and torso were dominated by species of the Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) (Scholz and Kilian, 2016) and Staphylococcus genera, whereas moist areas such as the elbow and knee creases were dominated by Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus species (Grice et al., 2009). 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The sebum bugs that live on our skin: ecology, genomics and therapeutic opportunities of the use faecal..., distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms Malassezia in atopic dermatitis,,., Singh N, Alexander C, Williams et al and RT5 were significantly enriched in to! Viruses that compose the skin microbiota have been directly correlated with multiple diseases believe this unique resource will inform microbiome! Factor 4.123 | CiteScore 5.4More on impact ›, University of Pennsylvania, United States and may implications. Milestone in 2012 when it Published initial results good bacteria this manuscript epidemiologic similarities in pediatric community-associated methicillin-resistant methicillin-sensitive... Its role in wound infections Ricklin, M. E. ( 2018 ) has devised cream... Phenomena are linked with skin microbiota: a colossus steps into the spotlight ] skin samples now then... 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