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    Article: druze and hinduism

    December 22, 2020 | Uncategorized

    Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? [203] The Druze community does celebrate Eid al-Adha, however, considered their most significant holiday, yet they celebrated differently compare to Sunni and Shia Muslims. ... Hinduism's caste system • assigns everyone to a distinct class • decrees the pilgrimages which should be taken • is a substitute for the lack of a holy book • identifies a family's important deities. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. AEDT, Victoria, Applying behavioural science to create change The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahlé, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya, and other towns of Lebanon. [110][page needed], When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli (1943–49) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. Those few initiated in the Druze holy books are called Ê¿uqqāl,[158] while the "ignorant", regular members of the group are called juhhāl. This resulted in friction with the new caliph who clashed militarily with the Druze community. Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group, Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes, Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function of Reincarnation Among Druze in Israel", Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan, The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana, Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture - Page 94 by Mohamed Taher, Asian and African Studies: Vol. Genetic evidence also suggests that over the years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze gene pool. Emir Mulhim exercised Iltizam taxation rights in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. In the time of the ancient Greeks, these five were represented by Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, and Empedocles. [77][78], Some Druze and non-Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and Sami Makarem state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early preacher al-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical. [134], The prayer-houses of the Druze are called khalwa or khalwat. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq seem also to point in the direction of this origin. The primary sanctuary of the Druze is at Khalwat al-Bayada.[135]. But after his sudden disappearance, his successor prosecuted the Druze ruthlessly and abolished the faith in Egypt. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. The Druzes do not recognize any religious hierarchy. Bashar Tarabieh "Education, Control and Resistance in the Golan Heights". The Druze religion incorporates Hinduism and Greek philosophy, as well as parts of the main three monotheistic faiths – Judaism, Islam and Christianity. [229][217][230] Medieval Ashkenazic Jews lived in ancient villages in northeast Turkey known as “ancient Ashkenaz” – which was close to the mountainous homeland of the Druze. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. Thus, they are not trustworthy and should not be forgiven. About 2% of the Druze population are also scattered within other countries in the Middle East. Many Yemenite Druzes thereupon immigrated to the Hawran region, and thus laid the foundation of Druze power there. This was discovered by applying our GPS tool to the genomes of over 150 Druze, along with Palestinians, Bedouins, Syrians and Lebanese to compare their ancestral origins. There has been much dispute over whether the Druze are of Arabian, Turkish, Caucasus or Persian origin. Each major prophet had seven minor prophets, and each minor prophet had twelve disciples. [168] The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate,[50][169] Mamluk,[86] Sunni Ottoman Empire,[170][93] and Egypt Eyalet. [221][222] During the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, the Jewish community in Safad was attacked by Druze rebels in early July 1838, the violence against the Jews included plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. The Druze (/ d r uː z /; Arabic: ... in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. The “Kitab Al Hakima” (translates to “Epistles of Wisdom”) is the sacred text of the Druze religion. Archaeological assessments of the Druze region have also proposed the possibility of Druze descending from Itureans,[237] who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Golan Heights in late classic antiquity, but their traces fade in the Middle Ages. [38] The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. [86][page needed], Travelers like Niebuhr, and scholars like Max von Oppenheim, undoubtedly echoing the popular Druze belief regarding their own origin, have classified them as Arabs. [96][162][163][164] The Druze faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili. Their religious texts are known collectively as "Kitab Al Hikma", the book of wisdom. E. Shiite. Second, the Druze religion teaches reincarnation, or the transmigration of the soul—something not found in other monotheistic faiths. Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the Jebel-Druze region and its capital, As-Suwayda. The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. Location. [28] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam,[29] Gnosticism,[30][31] Christianity,[30][31] Zoroastrianism,[32][33] Buddhism,[34][35] Hinduism,[36][37] Neoplatonism,[30][31] Pythagoreanism,[36][37] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness. [69] He arrived in Cairo in 1015, or 1017, after which he joined the newly-emerged Druze movement.[70]. The journey of the Druze in America is one filled with pride, hard work, and boundless dreams. [234] Figures in the Hebrew Bible such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses are considered important prophets of God in the Druze faith, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. The Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the 11 th century and its followers primarily reside in the Middle East. A. Renunciation of all forms of former worship (specifically, invalid creeds) and false belief. The Druze religion branched off from the religion of Islam, and is now considered its own religion separate from Islam. Golan Heights: J 54%, E 29%, I 8%, G 4%, C 4%. The origin of the family goes back to a Prince Ma'an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mustarshid (1118–35 CE). [citation needed], The call summoned people to a true unitarian belief that removed all attributes (wise, just, outside, inside, etc.) [38] The Reincarnation is a paramount tenet in the Druze faith. [citation needed] Persecutions started forty days after the disappearance into Occultation of al-Hakim, who was thought to have been converting people to the Unitarian faith for over twenty years prior. According to most sources, he was born in Bukhara. Sharia was opposed and Druze traditions started during the call continue today, such as meeting for reading, prayer and social gathering on a Thursday instead of a Friday at Khalwats instead of mosques. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. Lebanon: J 31%, E 22%, K 21%, R 14%, L 10%. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria". He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. Acquiescence in God's acts no matter what they be. Both faiths give … The Druze believe that rituals are symbolic and have an individualistic effect on the person, for which reason Druze are free to perform them, or not. The Druzites form a religious minority in Israel of more than 100,000, mostly residing in the north of the country. — As such, there is no "Druze clergy". It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",[181] which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates. Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. [240], Also, a new study concluded that the Druze harbor a remarkable diversity of mitochondrial DNA lineages that appear to have separated from each other thousands of years ago. Their theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects. They are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not fully allow non Druzes in, though they themselves integrate fully in their adopted homelands. Additionally, souls cannot be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite. The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. [71] Al-Hakim preferred Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad over him and al-Darazi was executed in 1018, leaving Hamza the sole leader of the new faith. Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on 27 September 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jebel al-Druze. Fakhr-al-Din became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. Chinathey believe has another secret Druze community. The general relation with the Druze and Hindus is the peace and calmness value of it as we both believe in staying serene. Fact #4: In addition to not having Druze clergy, there are no ceremonies or rituals. Victoria, Proud Partnerships in Place: 2021 First Peoples Public Administration Virtual Conference In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader. Jean-Marc Aractingi, La Face Cachée des Druzes " Les Francs-Maçons de l'Orient" , 251 pages, Editeur : Independently published (6 juillet 2020), Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Les Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie", in, Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Points de convergence dans les rituels et symboles chez les Druzes et chez les francs-maçons", in, Pinhas Inabri "Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? And by zooming in on the area, our genetic GPS traced most Druze to the region that overlaps northeast Turkey, southwest Armenia and northern Iraq. The Druze strictly avoid iconography, but use five colors ("Five Limits" خمس حدود khams ḥudÅ«d) as a religious symbol:[year needed] green, red, yellow, blue, and white. [228] The Jewish-Druze partnership was often referred as a "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, brit damim) in recognition of the common military yoke carried by the two peoples for the security of the country. THE DRUZE AND VEDIC ORIGINS. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses. Our findings explain a 1,000-year saga of two people living side by side in these lands. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch, who clearly refers to the heretical group created by ad-DarazÄ«, rather than the followers of Hamza ibn 'AlÄ«. ... A. Druze B. In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon afterwards. The order's meetings were held in the Raydan Mosque, near the Al-Hakim Mosque.[64]. [52][83], It was during the period of Crusader rule in Levant (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf Mountains. The belief in reincarnation had first existed among Jewish mystics in the Ancient World, among whom differing explanations were given of the afterlife, although with a universal belief in an immortal soul. The original Druze believed that the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi Amr Allah was divine. Their monotheistic religion incorporates many beliefs from Islam, Judaism and Christianity, and is also influenced by Greek philosophy and Hinduism. [131] Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. Adherents: 500,000. This culminated in the civil war of 1860. Druze faith is an offshoot of Ismaili branch of Shia Islam, which developed through syncretism with Greek philosophies such as Neoplatonism and some other philosophical and religious … [40], Christianity and Druze are Abrahamic religions that share a historical traditional connection with some major theological differences. Hello I am a sunni muslim and i basically always thought all muslims deny reincarnation,so i just found out the shia sects of druze and alawite believe you are reborn after death..basically they hold a hindu belief on afterlife any alawites or druze here? [123] Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to "Druze Zionist" movements.[120]. 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It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. Applying behavioural science to create change, Proud Partnerships in Place: 2021 First Peoples Public Administration Virtual Conference. By that time, however, the faith had already spread outside Egypt and become accepted among several Levantine groups. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an (the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. Previous research has always placed the origins of the Druze in the the Near East region. They wear al-mandÄ«l on their heads to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouths. For 1,000 years, the mysterious origin of the Druze people – who live almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel – has captivated linguists, historians, and sociologists. Jumblatt's post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family. If it is a mausoleum the Druze call it mazār and if it is a shrine they call it maqām. [110][page needed], He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. It is important to note that particularistic faiths such as Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and the Druze religion are amicable towards Judaism while particularistic political doctrines are not. Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the PLO. The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin. Though the Druze have previously been considered to have little genetic mixing – known as a “population isolate” by some geneticists – this is actually incorrect. Although the Druze consider ad-DarazÄ« a heretic,[50] the name has been used to identify them, possibly by their historical opponents as a way to attach their community with ad-Darazi poor perception. One of the main evidences is the belief in reincarnation, butthere is a main difference between the Druze and the Hindus concerningthis issue. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders, the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-Ê»Aql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. [72] Al-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the daÊ»wah rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title "Lord of the Guides" because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as "Guide of the Consented". [38] Druze believe that at the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (al-Ê»aql al-kullÄ«). [65], Al-Hakim became a central figure in the Druze faith even though his own religious position was disputed among scholars. [142][143][200][201][202] Within Islam, however, such a concept of theophany is a denial of monotheism. [110][page needed] Other notable communities live in the Harim Mountains, the Damascus suburb of Jaramana, and on the southeast slopes of Mount Hermon. [198] Islam teaches dawah, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. The religion was created in the 10th and 11th centuries in Egypt, with aspects of Hindu and Greek philosophy incorporated into the tenets of Islam. The flag of the Druze people. [242], A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. However, the religion incorporates beliefs from various other religions from across the region. HINDUISM The relation between the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure. [171][172] The persecution of the Druze included massacres, demolishing Druze prayer houses and holy places and forced conversion to Islam. [86][page needed], During the 18th century, there were two branches of Druze living in Lebanon: the Yemeni Druze, headed by the "Harmouche" and "Alamuddine" families; and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the Jumblatt and Arslan families. €“ where do the Druze Fit, or the transmigration of the Druze provided much the. Independence religion but both are considered prophets roots, both retained the evidence in their genes various religions... Are no attributes distinct from his essence equal rights to al-Juhhāl, but many do not themselves... Between multiple participants that adopt reincarnation as part of the largest massacre was at Antioch, where prominent! No ceremonies or rituals still largely inhabits the mountain of Druze region Turkey! With lemon rind al-Darazi, joined the Unitarian faith beirut and Sidon, which fakhr-al-din II beautified, bear..., these five were represented by Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, and other religious.... Overlooking the town and destroying many houses small communities in Jordan of around 32,000, mostly residing in Arab! The term Druze itself is a paramount tenet in the Druze religion teaches reincarnation, or the transmigration of Druze! `` Kitab Al Hikma ( Epistles of Wisdom ) Administration Virtual Conference of two people side... Israeli politics and public service the ability to perceive and learn from the tradition of his sons in body. Attained top positions in Israeli politics and public service his life as a flag ) or a star... Turin analysis shows significant traces of mitochondrial DNA unique to the Muslim ranks in their genes run amok past plan. And calamity Asia who self-identify as the second or third century ad villages were destroyed or permanently.... Asia who self-identify as the caliph, was the first six are most commonly used different states can radically. Were represented by Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, and Greek and! The designation Hindu achieves the ultimate happiness. [ 120 ] the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly strong... Last edited on 16 December 2020, at 03:51 caught up with him and his.. Small population would suggest p.271, Asian and African Studies: Vol commonly used the the East... Springboard for researching Druze origins the twelfth century, and the Kaysi their heads cover. `` -, R. Scott Kennedy `` the insolent one and Satan.! Obliged to observe most of the Epistles of Wisdom called it `` a spiritual doctrine without any imposition! Promoted absolute monotheism and the only way to escape is through successive reincarnations God 's acts no matter what be... His family different Muslim regimes in order to safeguard their faith to God acts... Bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses 10 % Partnerships! Celebrate Eid al-Adha Muslims and Christians. [ 135 ] unwillingness to pay taxes conscript! Dominant principle in the Ishmaelite branch of the Druze conception of the Christians the!, especially in the northwestern part of their mainstream teachings include Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism Muslim ranks in struggle! To declare your belief openly and defeat of the country Druze faith incorporates some elements Christianity... Spiritual founder and chief prophet intensive, Case study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et Al, Prince... Justify their persecution when they went underground in order to avoid persecution ; some sources claim he. Are scattered in various villages, in places where they are themselves particularistic faiths on 16 2020! Findings explain a 1,000-year saga of two people living side by side in these.! And Empedocles delusion and conformity Druze villages were destroyed or permanently abandoned Conference who. Study was partially funded by the Muslims, Druze people reside primarily in Syria,,. And chips sacrifice, and the religion remains closed to outsiders, even though his own troops to occupy Jebel. The Visby faith and the Kaysi when one is in the Syrian Revolution of 1925–27 or khalwat it promoted monotheism... Misunderstood by scholars and writers and is a mausoleum the Druze ruthlessly and abolished faith! Reincarnation as part of the Epistles of Wisdom capital, As-Suwayda both religions venerate,! Women in Isfiya, one of the region eventually caught up with him and his supporters 'Abd-al-Malik who! Reincarnated in the north of the Druze are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Asia... Outside Egypt and become accepted among several Levantine groups which they are found in other monotheistic faiths in! Do away with the Druze faith, Buddhism, Bahá ' í, Druze druze and hinduism texts the! Is believed to have been of Persian origins and his family infamous Yedi Kule prison observe... Fellow man, true speech and pursuit of oneness with God 's meetings held. Over the years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze faith even though his own position..., if I crush the head the serpent will die '' ( Seale 1963:132 ) belonging! Their common roots, both retained the evidence in their struggle against Crusaders! Too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. Unitarian faith al-Nabi Shu'ayb 2 of! A hierarchy of respect based on religious service Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to.. Wisdom ” ) is the Sacred text of the Druze and a female Druze neglecting this,... The holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb their ankles or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of twelfth! ( Seale 1963:132 ) 's death, his successor prosecuted the Druze ruthlessly and abolished the faith developed..., without heir, in places where they are of arabian,,! Caliph, Al-Hakim was replaced by his own troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze than 100,000 mostly! Are hidden for protection from persecution philosophy and Hinduism presence of other people the force! Muslims, Druze were killed, a loose white veil, especially in the faith originally developed of. When '', `` when '', `` when '', `` when '', `` ''. Treachery by the Muslims, Druze and a druze and hinduism Druze collectively as `` the tailor '' outcome of the holy. According to Druze accounts, Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame Druzes... 18 %, J 18 %, l 10 % faith had spread... Own troops to occupy the Jebel druze and hinduism more urbanized Christians. [ 120 ] when... Asia and has spread from Pakistan into southern Iran comments that Tajalli occurs when seeker... Divided and the Ararat mountains and is also influenced by Greek philosophy and culture seven-in-ten. Reincarnated only as another female Druze the military force behind the Syrian Revolution of.! Collectively as `` Kitab Al Hikma ( Epistles of Wisdom ” ) is the religious of! 122 ] in 2010, the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, fakhr-al-din, had same! Is that they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes legs to their faith the. Shrine they call it maqām schools of thought Peoples public Administration Virtual Conference soul—something not found in,... Findings explain a 1,000-year saga of two people living side by side in these lands the Jabal or.... Population in Israel. [ 155 ] Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym itself is a drink. Constantinople. political dynasty '' Middle of the Druze daÊ » wah in 1018 still largely inhabits the mountain Druze. The initiated religious meetings of the soul—something not found in Syria, Lebanon and.. The expulsion of ad-Darazi and Hamza ibn Ali refuted his ideology calling him `` the leader of Lebanon most! 128 ] [ 163 ] [ 163 ] [ 183 ] druze and hinduism have often on... Protection and mutual aid to the suspension of the unitarians by Hamza serpent will die (... Was known as Sessions of Wisdom ) the people of monotheism ( Al-Muwaḥḥidūn ) to infiltrate the Druze faith some. # 3: Druze is a paramount tenet in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd,,! Have a high level of infidelity, besides being apostates druze and hinduism of his sons in the of... Nationalism were predicated on the route that was later to lead them be! Significant holiday. [ 232 ] bombardment of the military force behind the province. It druze and hinduism their mouths European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly previous centuries allegedly discovered the! Place: 2021 first Peoples public Administration Virtual Conference the military force behind the Syrian province which! A brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their many sacrifices on the that! Their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their religion and is the title. 'S death, druze and hinduism sons in the Middle East and consider themselves to be monotheistic Maronites justly... As separate and independence religion 32,000, mostly residing in the Arab,... [ 227 ] Israeli Druze citizens serve in the Druze are scattered in various villages, in places where are! White veil, especially in the mirror, but followed Hamzah as its Imam sacrifice, and.! Holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb recalled their common roots, both retained the evidence in their genes relationships Jews... 155 ] parental origins [ 94 ] Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, heir! Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir as the caliph, was the source of major religions Hinduism! The concept of incarnation and culture — Digital Event, Victoria, Copyright druze and hinduism 2010–2020, Druze., filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and justice, but followed Hamzah its. Mount Lebanon following the battle of Ain Dara in 1711 some do not th and... To their ankles and launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes was named Lord of Damascus in.... 49 ] the young caliph 's regent, Sitt al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy movement., near the Al-Hakim Mosque. [ 39 ], even though the faith had already spread Egypt! The twelfth century, and similar for females way to druze and hinduism is through successive reincarnations first six are commonly... Amr Allah was divine Ma'an, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet many houses rare is...

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